The Secure Times

An online forum of the ABA Section of Antitrust Law's Privacy and Information Security Committee


Leave a comment

FTC Examines Internet of things, Privacy and Security, in Recent Workshop

On November 19, 2013, the Federal Trade Commission held a day-long workshop, “Internet of Things: Privacy and Security in a Connected World” on the privacy implications concerning devices such as cars, home appliances, fitness equipment, and other machines that are able to gather data and connect to the internet. For consumers, these devices can help track health, remotely monitor aging family members, reduce utility bills, and even send alerts to buy more milk.

Ubiquitous Internet of Things

Technological advances and new business models centered around the internet of things have taken off.
It has been reported that crowd-sourcing start-up, Quirky, has teamed up with GE to develop connected-home products. Another start up company isdeveloping tracking technology through GPS-embedded tags. On November 20, 2013, Qualcomm announced that has developed a line of chips for the internet of things space. It has been argued that companies should adjust their business models and use the internet of things to connect to customers. These developments present the FTC with the challenge of keeping up with technology to protect consumers and the competitive landscape.

In her remarks, Chairwoman Edith Ramirez emphasized how ubiquitous smart devices have become. Five years ago, she remarked, there are more “things” than people connected to the Internet; by 2015, there will be an estimated twenty-five billion things connected to the Internet and by 2020, an estimated fifty billion. Commissioner Maureen Ohlhausen, in her remarks later in the workshop, stated that the FTC will conduct policy research to understand the effects that technological advances and innovative business models concerning the internet of things have on consumers and the marketplace.

Privacy and Security Challenges

Chairwoman Ramirez noted privacy and security challenges presented by the internet of things. Privacy risks are present since devices connected to the internet can collect, compile, and transmit information about consumers in ways that may not have been expected. When aggregated, the data pieces collected by devices present “a deeply personal and startlingly complete picture of each of us.” Security risks are present since “any device connected to the Internet is potentially vulnerable to hijack.” Indeed, these risks have been reported and present real concerns.

Chairwoman Ramirez noted that the FTC will be vigilant in bringing enforcement actions against companies who fail to properly safeguard consumers from security breaches. She noted as an example the FTC’s first enforcement forayinto the internet of things against TRENDnet for failing to properly design its software and test its internet-connected security cameras, leaving consumers vulnerable to a hacker who accessed the live feeds from 700 cameras and made them available on the Internet. When it encounters consumer harm, Commissioner Olhausen stated that the FTC will use its traditional enforcement tools to challenge any potential threats that arise, much like it has done in the data security, mobile, and big data spaces.

Chairwoman Ramirez said that companies that take part in the internet of things ecosystem are “stewards of the consumer data” and that “with big data comes big responsibility.” The FTC has published a number of best practices that Chairwoman Ramirez identified as useful for companies in the internet of things space: (1) privacy by design—privacy protections built in from the outset, (2) simplified consumer choice—allowing consumers to control their data, and (3) transparency—disclosure of what information the devices collect and how it is being used.

FTC Report Forthcoming

The FTC will produce a report on what it has learned from the November 19 workshop and provide fruther recommendations about best practices. The FTC report can educate consumers and businesses on how to maximize consumer benefits and avoid or minimize any identified risks. Commissioner Ohlhausen stressed that the FTC should identify whether existing laws and existing regulatory structures, including self-regulation, are sufficient to address potential harms.

Vint Cerf of Google, who gave the keynote presentation, advised that rather than relying on regulations to protect privacy, social conventions should be developed. He stated that “while regulation might be helpful, an awful lot of the problems that we experience with privacy is a result of our own behavior.”

The same day as the workshop, the Future of Privacy Forum released a white paper arguing for an updated privacy paradigm for the internet of things that focuses not on how information is collected and communicated but on how organizations use personally identifiable information.

The FTC will continue to accept comments until January 10, 2013.

Advertisements


Leave a comment

FTC’s Data Privacy Staff Report – Comments Due Jan. 31

Last week, the Federal Trade Commission released its long-awaited privacy report.  Called “Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change”, the 79-page preliminary staff report outlines a framework for consumer privacy based on three principles: (1) Privacy By Design; (2) Simplified Choice; and (3) Transparency. 
 
Some of its key proposals include: a “Do Not Track” browser add-on and other changes to consumer privacy choices; broadening the scope “to all commercial entities that collect consumer data in both offline and online contexts, regardless of whether such entities interact directly with consumers;” and looking at whether COPPA-style consent requirements should apply to teenagers. The FTC is requesting comments on the report by January 31, 2011, and plans to issue a final report later in 2011. Annexed to the report are six pages of questions to which the FTC seeks comments.
 
The first half of the report discusses the principles of “notice and choice” and “harm” that have formed the basis for the FTC’s privacy-related policy work, educational efforts, and enforcement actions. It also summarizes the FTC’s activities and provides an overview of key issues raised during several years of roundtable discussions involving consumer advocacy groups, businesses, academicians and others. The second half of the report expands on the new principles, which appear to simply consolidate and expand upon the earlier principles – “notice” becomes “transparency”, “choice” becomes “simplified choice”, and “harm” becomes “privacy by design”:
  • Privacy by Design – Companies are urged to “incorporate substantive privacy and security protections into their everyday business practices and consider privacy issues systemically, at all stages of the design and development of their products and services.” Companies are urged to collect information only for a specific purpose, limit the amount of time that data is stored, use reasonable safeguards, and develop comprehensive, company-wide privacy programs. However, the FTC staff also recognizes that these measures need to be tailored to each company’s data practices – companies that collect limited amounts of non-sensitive data need not implement the same types of programs required by a company that sells large amounts of sensitive personal data.
  • Simplified Choice – Companies should “describe consumer choices clearly and concisely, and offer easy-to-use choice mechanisms . . .at a time and in a context in which the consumer is making a decision about his or her data.”  The FTC is proposing a new “laundry list” approach to determine whether or not companies need to provide choice to consumers. For example, defined “commonly accepted practices” generally will not require choice, whereas other practices may require either (1) some type of choice mechanism; (2) enhanced choice mechanism; or (3) even more restrictions than enhanced consent. As this is designed for both online and offline behaviors, categorizing each company’s practices as “commonly accepted” or not could be a daunting task.  A chart below outlines the basics of simplified choice.  
    • Do-Not-Track: The day after the report issued, the Commerce Department’s NTIA testified to Congress that it would be convening industry and consumer groups to discuss the “achieving voluntary agreements” on Do-Not-Track.   The FTC would then “ensure compliance with these voluntary agreements, as appropriate.” 
    • ABA Antitrust Section Members note: Companies in markets with limited competition may be subject to “Enhanced Privacy protections” and/or “Additional Enhanced Privacy Protections.” 
  • Greater Transparency – Companies should “make their data practices more transparent to consumers”. The FTC suggests developing a standardized policy like the notice templates currently developed for financial companies complying with Gramm-Leach-Bliley. The FTC is also considering whether increase the transparency of data broker activities and proposes allowing consumers to access (but not necessarily change) profiles compiled about them from many sources.
Two Commissioners issued concurring statements to the proposed framework. Commissioner Kovacic called some of the recommendations “premature” – including the Do-Not-Track proposal. He also pointed out the report lacked consideration of the existing federal and state oversight of privacy concerns. Commissioner Rauch issued a concurring statement that applauds the report as a useful “horatory exercise”, but criticizes the new approach. He states that it could be overstepping the FTC’s bounds to consider “reputational harm” and “other intangible privacy interests” if no deception is involved.
 
Stay tuned – there are many privacy developments on the horizon. In remarks delivered with the report, Chairman Liebowitz declared that “despite some good actors, self-regulation of privacy has not worked adequately and is not working adequately for Americans consumers.” He signaled that the FTC will be bringing more cases in the coming months – and that cases involving children are of particular interest.  In addition, the Commerce Department’s “green paper” on Commercial Data Privacy is expected soon.
 
                                                            Table – Simplified Choice
 
Choice Not Required
Choice Mechanism REQUIRED
Choice Not Required
No choice, but Additional Transparency (Notice)
(Unspecified – presumably Company Discretion; also Do Not Track)
Enhanced Consent (Affirmative Express Consent)
“Even more heightened restrictions” than Enhanced Consent
Do Not Track
1. “Commonly Accepted Practices” 
Laundry list of practices, report suggests: first party marketing (FTC seeks comment on scope); internal operations, legal compliance, fraud prevention.
 
1. Technically Difficult/not feasible to provide choice mechanism: e.g. Data Brokers? (comment sought)
2.“Enhancement?” – compiling data from several sources to profile consumers (comment sought re: whether choice should be provided about these practices?) 
1. Not “Commonly Accepted Practices” and not “Technically Difficult” e.g. Data Brokers (comment sought).
1. Sensitive Information for online behavioral advertising; information about children, financial & medical information, precise geolocation data.
2. Sensitive Users: Children: Teenagers (staff seeks comment); Users who lack meaningful choice (lack of competition in market) (Staff seeks comment).
3. Changing specific purpose: Use of data in materially different manner than claimed when data was posted, collected, or otherwise obtained.
1. Lack of alternative consumer choices through Industry factors (competition): Broadband ISP deep packet inspection.
2, Others?
 
1. Online Behavioral Advertisers.
2. Others?